What is diabetes?
Diabetes or diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that causes high blood
glucose levels due to the body’s inadequate insulin production, its improper
reaction to insulin or both of the mentioned. Insulin is created naturally in the
pancreas, an organ located near the stomach. Food consumed by the body is
converted into glucose. Insulin helps in the absorption of this glucose, thus
aiding in the supply of the body’s energy. During diabetes this insulin creation
and use is hampered causing sugar levels to build up in the blood. This buildup
can lead to heart diseases, kidney failure, blindness and other complications.
Diabetes often goes undiagnosed and unattended though it can be spotted by a
set of symptoms.
Common Diabetic symptoms
The most common types of diabetes symptoms include,
i) Frequent urination (polyuria)
ii) Increased thirst for liquids (polydipsia) and
iii) Elevated hunger (polyphagia)
The symptoms can further aggravate into chronic kidney diseases, foot
problems, non-traumatic lower limb amputation, eye diseases (retinopathy) that
can further lead to blindness; heart attacks, anxiety issues, nerve damage, and
erectile dysfunction in men. Diabetes is most prominently debilitating. There
are fewer cases of it being fatal for individuals.
Types of diabetes and how to detect them
Diabetes as a disease most commonly takes the form of the following three
1. Type 1 diabetes: This types of diabetes takes place when the beta cells of
the pancreas are accidentally killed by the immune system. Hence, the
level of insulin is very limited, increasing the level of sugar in the body
which would have otherwise been used as energy. This type of diabetes
generally affect 5 to 10% of the population and is most commonly seen
during childhood or adolescence, but can develop during adulthood as
well. To cure this type of diabetes, a proper meal planning can go a long
way. Insulin, too, is used to get rid of it. Type 1 diabetes is also known to
consist of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), which affects
the small number of people with apparent type 2 diabetes and who have
to go through immune-mediated loss of pancreatic beta cells.
2. Type 2 diabetes: This form of diabetes occurs when the body is unable to
make use of or produce enough insulin. Hence, sugar builds up in the
body instead of being utilised as energy. It is the most common type of
diabetes affecting 90% of the population and mainly affects adults, more
than children. It can be dealt with by exercising the right way or forming
a proper meal plan. Medications and insulin might also be needed to
maintain a balanced level in the body.
3. Type 3 diabetes: Type 3 diabetes, also known as gestational diabetes is a
temporary form which occurs pregnant women. It affects a very small
amount of women during pregnancy and is not that common. However, a
mother suffering through this kind of diabetes during her pregnancy has a
high risk of suffering through it for a long time, including passing the
same onto her child after birth.